Advances in Biopharmaceutical Technology in India
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Chapter 18:   Biopharmaceutical Research Collaborations between India and the West

Abstract:
Biopharmaceutical research, and in particular development of innovative drugs and vaccines require concentrated efforts on many levels, as well as multiple skills and expertise. Research collaborations between two or more life science organizations are therefore common in the biopharmaceutical industry. Increasingly these collaborations can involve organizations from different countries and different continents, and in particular they now include partnerships between the public and the private sectors. The recent changes in Indian patent law and its policies in response to the requirements of the Trade- Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS), and the recent shift in India to a more innovation-intense pharmaceutical industry, as well as the immense progress in India’s infrastructure and capacity for basic research in the biomedical field have all made India’s life-science organizations attractive collaborators to their western counterparts. These collaborations have been further facilitated by the many Indian lifescience returnees who have established links in the West. This chapter is intended to serve as a guide to prospective collaborators in both India and the West. Its first half outlines the factors that have made the India’s biopharmaceutical industry an attractive collaborator to its western counterparts, a fact that resulted in India’s emergence as a hub for international R&D, manufacturing and clinical trials. The second half of the chapter starts with the history and the chronology of U.S.-India collaboration in science, highlighting the areas of health care and biomedical research, and goes on to provide information regarding the different programs for collaborative initiatives that are available from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and its agencies such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), its licensing arm, the Office of Technology Transfer (OTT), and the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). On the Indian side the chapter highlights the contributions to such collaborations of the Indian Department of Biotechnology (DBT) under the Ministry of Science and Technology. DBT works in concert with its U.S. counterparts to continually support a large variety of programs, and to form new research initiatives. These joint U.S.-India efforts fund research, and support training, bilateral meetings and conferences, as well as facilitate open exchange of scientific information between the two countries. The chapter provides websites of the different programs as well as of the institutions in the U.S. and in India who currently benefit from the resources and programs described in the chapter. It is hoped that the information provided in the chapter will be utilized by scientists on both sides of the ocean to establish new and innovative partnerships for the benefit of global public health.

About the Authors:

Uri Reichman, Ph.D., M.B.A.
Chief, Infectious Diseases and Medical Engineering Branch
National Institute of Health Office of Technology Transfer
Rockville, MD 20852 USA

Bharat Khurana, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Staff Scientist, Department of Pathology
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Bethesda, MD 20814-4799 USA

Steven M. Ferguso
Director, Division of Technology Development and Transfer
National Institute of Health Office of Technology Transfer
Rockville, MD 20852 USA


Uri Reichman, Ph.D., M.B.A. -- Dr. Reichman is the chief of the Infectious Diseases and Medical Engineering Branch at the Office of Technology Transfer, NIH. He joined OTT in December 1999. Prior to joining the NIH, Dr. Reichman worked for twenty years (1980-1999) in the biotechnology industry, specializing in the field of medical diagnostics. From 1973 to 1980, Dr. Reichman conducted academic research at Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research in New York. Dr. Reichman is an author of 26 scientific papers and an inventor on several patents. Dr. Reichman received his Ph.D. in Medicinal Chemistry from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel, and obtained an M.B.A. degree from Iona College in New York.

Bharat Khurana, D.V.M., Ph.D. -- Dr. Khurana has over ten years of scientific research experience in the fields of virology, cell and molecular biology, and biochemistry. Prior to joining the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), he was a postdoctoral fellow in the Laboratory of Viral Diseases at National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. He received his Ph.D. from University of Cologne, Germany and his D.V.M. from Haryana Agricultural University, India. Dr. Khurana is also currently pursuing a part-time dual degree MS-MBA program at the Johns Hopkins University to expand on his knowledge and skills in regulatory affairs and biopharma business development. Dr. Khurana has authored or co-authored several research and review articles in peer reviewed scientific journals. Additionally, he has reviewed grant proposals for the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Steven M. Ferguson currently serves as the Director of the Division of Technology Development and Transfer. Prior to joining NIH Office of Technology Transfer in 1990, Mr. Ferguson served in marketing and management positions in biomedical firms subsequent to being a scientist at the National Cancer Institute. His healthcare experience has also included work as Director of Marketing and Public Relations for a rural 70-bed hospital. Registered to practice before the USPTO, Mr. Ferguson also holds Master’s Degrees in Business Administration (George Washington University) and Chemistry (University of Cincinnati) as well as Bachelor’s Degree in Chemistry (Case Western Reserve University). Mr. Ferguson has been an economic reviewer for Maryland Industrial Partnerships (MIPS) as well as the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) grant programs and is an instructor for both the USDA Graduate School and the NIH FAES Graduate School where he also the department chair for the new Certificate in Technology Transfer Program. Mr. Ferguson was also the Susan T. and Charles E. Harris Visiting Lecturer at the Watson School of Biological Sciences at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and has published articles on licensing and technology transfer issues. He has received the NIH Director’s Award and seven NIH Merit Awards in recognition of his activities in the management and negotiation of technology licensing agreements from the National Institutes of Health.

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